Raw Materials Related Projects of Societal Challenge 5 Policy Co-Creation Workshop Date: 29 April 2021 Time: 10:00-12:15 CEST What has been the impact of Horizon 2020 projects in helping us to a sustainable production or substitution of raw materials? And how can policy actions create and stimulate the desired impacts in the fields of science, society and the economy? These are questions the IMPACT-SC5 project will address with you, during a series of thematic Policy Co-Creation Workshops. Second in the series is this workshop on Raw Material projects in SC5. This workshop will be held online on 29 April 2021, 10:00-12:15 CEST. This will be a policy co-creation workshop, aimed at discussing the results of our analysis regarding the Raw Materials related projects of Societal Challenge 5. In addition, during the workshop we will collectively identify how policy on national and European level can facilitate the enhancement of SC5 impacts’ diffusion and uptake across the EU. The workshop is organised digitally in the context of IMPACT-SC5 (https://impact-sc5.eu/), a Horizon 2020 project that reviews the 87 RIAs ans IAs funded under the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 Work Programme 2014-2015 in terms of their scientific, economic, societal and environmental performance and impacts, both individually and across portfolios of projects. The Raw Materials project portfolio comprises the following projects: Project clusters Project Acronym Project name Project URL Project cluster 3.1: SUSTAINABLE. PRODUCTION OF RAW MATERIALS BioMOre New Mining Concept for Extracting Metals from Deep Ore Deposits using Biotechnology http://www.biomore.info Blue Nodule Breakthrough Solutions for the Sustainable Harvesting and Processing of Deep Sea Polymetallic Nodules http://www.blue-nodules.eu FAME Flexible and Mobile Economic Processing Technologies http://www.fame-project.eu HiTech AlkCarb New geomodels to explore deeper for High-Technology critical raw materials in Alkaline rocks and Carbonatites http://www.carbonatites.eu INTMET Integrated innovative metallurgical system to benefit efficiently polymetallic, complex and low-grade ores and concentrates http://www.intmet.eu/ METGROW PLUS Metal Recovery from Low Grade Ores and Wastes Plus http://www.metgrowplus.eu OptimOre Increasing yield on Tungsten and Tantalum ore production by means of advanced and flexible control on crushing, milling and separation process https://www.optim-ore.eu/ Real-Time-Mining Real-time optimization of extraction and the logistic process in highly complex geological and selective mining settings http://www.realtime-mining.eu ROBUST Robotic subsea exploration technologies http://eu-robust.eu SOLSA Sonic Drilling coupled with Automated Mineralogy and chemistry On-Line-On-Mine-Real-Time http://www.solsa-mining.eu UNEXMIN Autonomous Underwater Explorer for Flooded Mines http://www.unexmin.eu/ VAMOS Viable and Alternative Mine Operating System http://www.vamos-project.eu Project cluster 3.2: SUSTAINABLE. SUBSTITUTION OF RAW MATERIALS EQUINOX A novel process for manufacturing complex shaped Fe-Al intermetallic parts resistant to extreme environments http://equinox-project.eu/ Flintstone2020 Next generation of super hard non-CRM materials and solutions in tooling http://flintstone2020.eu INFINITY Indium-Free Transparent Conductive Oxides for Glass and Plastic Substrates http://infinity-h2020.eu INREP Towards Indium free TCOs http://www.inrep.eu For questions or comments, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
FIGHTING AND ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE Policy Co-Creation Workshop on the impact of European research and innovation projects Date: 28 April 2021 Time: 10:00-12:15 CEST What has been the impact of Horizon 2020 projects in helping us to fight and adapt to climate change? And how can policy actions create and stimulate the desired impacts in the fields of science, society and the economy? These are questions the IMPACT-SC5 project will address with you, during a series of thematic Policy Co-Creation Workshops. First in the series is this workshop on Climate Change. This workshop will be held online on 28 April 2021, 10:00-12:15 CEST. The objectives of the workshop are to: discuss the results of our analysis regarding the Climate Change related projects of Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials (SC5) collectively identify how policy on national and European level can enhance the diffusion and uptake of impacts across the EU. The co-creation workshop is being organised in the context our IMPACT-SC5 “Assessing the impact pathways of IA/RIA SC5 projects through the use of portfolio analysis” project (GA No. 869746). IMPACT-SC5 reviews the 87 RIAs and IAs funded under the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 – Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials – Work Programme 2014-2015, as well as its supplementary Work Programmes and calls. The portfolio Climate Change comprises the following twelve projects: Clusters of projects Project Acronym Project name Project URL Project cluster 1.1 Disaster Resilience & Climate Change topic 1 RESIN Climate Resilient Cities and Infrastructures http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/653522 EU-CIRCLE A pan-European framework for strengthening Critical Infrastructure resilience to climate change http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/653824 RESCCUE RESilience to cope with Climate Change in Urban arEas – a multisectorial approach focusing on water http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/700174 BRIGAID BRIdges the GAp for Innovations in Disaster resilience http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/700699 Disaster Resilience & Climate Change topic 3 STORM Safeguarding Cultural Heritage through Technical and Organisational Resources Management http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/700191 HERACLES HEritage Resilience Against CLimate Events on Site http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/700395 Energy strategies and solutions for deep renovation of historic buildings RIBuild Robust Internal Thermal Insulation of Historic Buildings http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/637268 Economic assessment of climate change TRANSrisk Transition pathways and risk analysis for climate change mitigation and adaption strategies http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/642260 Linkages between climate change actions and sustainable development GREEN-WIN Green growth and win-win strategies for sustainable climate action http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/642018 CD-LINKS Linking Climate and Development Policies – Leveraging International Networks and Knowledge Sharing http://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/642147 Project cluster 1.2 Advanced Earth Models CRESCENDO Coordinated Research in Earth Systems and Climate: Experiments, kNowledge, Dissemination and Outreach https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/641816 PRIMAVERA Process-based climate sIMulation: AdVances in high resolution modelling and European climate Risk Assessment https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/641727 For questions or comments, please contact us at email@example.com
On 15 March 2021, the IMPACT-SC5 consortium organised an interactive workshop comparing the approaches of Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge ‘Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy’ (SC2) and Societal Challenge 5 ‘Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials’ (SC5) and their impacts on future rresearch and innovation strategies and EU policy goals. In this context, we presented the project’s impact pathway and portfolio analysis methodology, discussed how stronger interlinkages between programmes could help to increase efficiency, reduce redundancies, and build synergies in research and its applications while also improving governance across sectors. Following the opening presentations by consortium partners Naiara Uribe (Tecnalia), Janne Lehenkari and Mona Arnold (both VTT), a panel of five experts was asked to reflect on the first results of the comparative analysis of Research and Innovation Actions and Innovation Actions across these two Societal Challenges. Two further questions were then addressed: Which integrative activities or approaches can affect future resource management and sufficiency? What new instruments could be helpful? How could the impacts of European research and innovation projects better support European goals and global targets in the areas of water, climate, biodiversity, and resource efficiency? The five panel members were: Panagiotis Balabanis, Head of Sector Water, EC DG Research and Innovation Floor Brouwer, SIM4Nexus project coordinator, University of Wageningen Antonia Lorenzo (BIOAZUL), Water Europe (Leader of the WG on Water and Agrifood) Jaana Lehtimäki (Academy of Finland) NCP for both SC2 and SC5 Casper Zulim de Swarte (Schuttelaar & Partners), Senior Advisor Food Transition Panel members as well as participants raised interesting points related to mechanisms to reach policy makers, the value of impact assessments and how to deal with the long term (which is indeed a question the impact pathway assessment of IMPACT-SC5 aims to address), the role of best practices in projects and networks and the need for participants in the projects to understand the policy rationale behind the call topics. Other interesting points brought up were gender issues, particularly the distribution and evolution of male-female researchers in junior to senior positions and the role and involvement of SMEs (how to get these interested to take part). A summary of the findings will be made available shortly. If you were unable to take part in the event, you can watch the recording. The presentations are available for you to download: IMPACT-SC5 Workshop_23rd March Naira Uribe – introduction to the project IMPACT-SC5 Workshop 23 March Janne Lehenkari – project methodology and portfolio analysis IMPACT-SC5 Workshop 23 March Mona Arnold – comparative analysis of RIA and IA across SC2-SC5 Interested and curious to find out more? In the period April-May we will organise five thematic workshops presenting and discussing the findings from our portfolio analyses: 28 April Portfolio Climate change 29 April Portfolio Raw materials 6 May Portfolio Environment, ecosystems, biodiversity 11 May Portfolio Waste 12 May Portfolio Water On 3 June 2021, we will present the project’s results and policy recommendations for discussion and feedback during a stakeholder conference. Further information about the workshops and registration will become available on this website.
Horizon 2020 Funding Schemes Horizon 2020 calls can have different types of action (funding schemes). The type of action specifies: the scope of what is funded the reimbursement rate specific evaluation criteria to qualify for funding the use of simplified forms of costs like lump sums You find the detailed description of types of actions in the General Annexes of the Main Work Programme and in the ERC Work Programme. The two types of actions relevant to the Imact-SC5 project are the Research and Innovation Actions (RIA) and Innovation Actions (IA). Research & Innovation actions (RIA) EU funding rate – 100% Activities aiming to establish new knowledge and/or to explore the feasibility of a new or improved technology, product, process, service or solution. For this purpose they may include basic and applied research, technology development and integration, testing and validation on a small-scale prototype in a laboratory or simulated environment. Projects may contain closely connected but limited demonstration or pilot activities aiming to show technical feasibility in a near to operational environment. For more detail see Annex D to the work programme. In case of Research and Innovation Lump Sum actions (RIA-LS), funding for grants awarded will take the form of lump sums. For more information on the specificities of Lump Sum actions, check this presentation. Innovation actions (IA) EU funding rate – 70% (except non-profit, which are still funded 100%) Activities directly aiming at producing plans and arrangements or designs for new, altered or improved products, processes or services. For this purpose they may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication. For more detail see Annex D to the work programme. A ‘demonstration or pilot’ aims to validate the technical and economic viability of a new or improved technology, product, process, service or solution in an operational (or near to operational) environment, whether industrial or otherwise, involving where appropriate a larger scale prototype or demonstrator. A ‘market replication’ aims to support the first application/deployment in the market of an innovation that has already been demonstrated but not yet applied/deployed in the market due to market failures/barriers to uptake. ‘Market replication’ does not cover multiple applications in the market of an innovation15 that has already been applied successfully once in the market. ‘First’ means new at least to Europe or new at least to the application sector in question. Often such projects involve a validation of technical and economic performance at system level in real life operating conditions provided by the market. Projects may include limited research and development activities In case of Innovation Lump Sum actions (IA-LS), funding for grants awarded will take the form of lump sums. For more information on the specificities of Lump Sum actions, check the presentation. Other types of actions There are several other funding schemes, but these are out of scope for the Impact-SC5 project. These funding schemes include: Coordination and support actions Grants of the European Research Council (ERC) to support frontier research Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (MSCA) COFUND actions Procurement actions SME Instrument Inducement Prize Recognition Prize Debt and equity facility You can find all info on these types of actions here.
SC5: Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials Activities in this Challenge will help increase European competitiveness, raw materials security and improve wellbeing. At the same time they will assure environmental integrity, resilience and sustainability with the aim of keeping average global warming below 2° C and enabling ecosystems and society to adapt to climate change and other environmental changes. (source) SC5 Objectives This Challenge funds research and innovation with the following specific objectives: to achieve a resource – and water – efficient and climate change resilient economy and society, the protection and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems, and a sustainable supply and use of raw materials, in order to meet the needs of a growing global population within the sustainable limits of the planet’s natural resources and eco-systems. The 20th century’s era of seemingly plentiful and cheap resources is coming to an end. The ability of the economy to adapt and become more climate change resilient, resource efficient and at the same time remain competitive depends on high levels of eco-innovation, of a societal, economic, organisational and technological nature. With the global market for eco-innovation worth around €1 trillion per annum and expected to triple by 2030, eco-innovation represents a major opportunity to boost competitiveness and job creation in European economies. To ensure EU added value and given the transnational and global nature of the climate and the environment, their scale and complexity, and the international dimension of the raw materials supply chain, activities have to be carried out at the Union level and beyond. Reducing resource use and environmental impacts, whilst increasing competitiveness, will require a decisive societal and technological transition to an economy based on a sustainable relationship between nature and human well-being. Innovation in these fields will provide opportunities for growth and jobs, as well as innovative options involving science, technology including of ICT, the economy, society, policy and governance. Lines of Activities Research and innovation will cover the following broad lines of activities: Climate Action – Informed decisions for a climate-resilient low-carbon society Cultural Heritage – Engaging a new cultural heritage agenda for economic growth Earth Observations – Crucial info on climate, energy, natural hazards and other societal challenge Nature-Based Solutions – Providing viable solutions of natural ecosystems Systemic Eco-Innovation – Generating and sharing economic and environmental benefits Climate funding can also been found in the following two areas: Leadership in Enabling and Industrial Technologies – Space Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Marine, Maritime and Inland Water Research and the Bioeconomy Work Programmes Impact-SC5 looks at the first of the three Work Programmes under this Societal Challenge, that ran from 2014 to 2015. The other two ran from 2016 to 2017 and 2018 to 2020
Why Measure the Impact of Horizon 2020 Projects? As was introduced in a previous blog post, measuring the impact of projects is more important in Horizon 2020 than it was for its predecessors. Horizon 2020 has new performance indicators to measure the impact of the funded actions. However, these indicators are not considered sufficient to fully capture the outcomes and impacts of projects. Reasons for this are for example that the time between the funding of activities and achieving impact can be several years and the difficulty of attributing impact to a single funding source. It is often difficult to attribute outcomes to funding sources, as most research teams receive funding from multiple and different sources. It is therefore critical to develop the right indicators and ensure the quality and quantity of underlying data is done such that the impact of a project can be measured and attributed to its investments. The Role of Impact-SC5 IMPACT‐SC5 aims to assess the impacts of the 87 funded RIAs and IAs under the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 Work Programme 2014-2015, through a multilevel analysis, starting at project level, through portfolio, network and context analyses. It applies a rigorous methodology that enables to capture the various impacts of projects and groups of projects. Horizon 2020 contributes, via its focus on ‘Societal Challenges’ (SCs), to the ongoing paradigm change in the European Research and Innovation Policy. The pursued objectives are not only to generate economic growth and jobs, but to help resolve pressing socio‐economic challenges, including those related to climate, environment, resource efficiency, and raw materials (SC5). The challenge orientation of Horizon 2020 implies monitoring the progress of the projects towards the achievement of the targeted objectives and impacts. The scientific, economic and societal/environmental performance of the 87 projects will be measured by means of an extensive set of indicators. A portfolio analysis will complement the project‐level analysis in order to determine how projects perform together in relation to different objectives. IMPACT‐SC5 will explore impact pathways to identify good practices and draw recommendations for policymakers and potential EU research funding beneficiaries to increase the impacts of future SC5 projects. Particular attention will be paid to the broad and changing policy contexts to ensure a holistic approach for a better understanding of the performance (and the underlying factors) of the 87 projects. Throughout the project, stakeholder engagement will be strongly fostered. The methodology and findings will be validated with high‐level experts and practitioners. The methodology will be made available to the European Commission for its use in the ex‐post evaluation of Horizon 2020 or future evaluation exercises. The novelty of the work is that the indicators present the Research & Innovation pathways from short-term project outputs (deliverables) to longer-term expected scientific, societal and economic impact. Indicators The project impact indicators that Impact-SC5 is developing will: Assess the impacts of all the RIAs and IAs of SC 5 under the 2014-2015 WP through in-depth quantitative and qualitative analysis-87 projects in total. Measure and better understand the progress made by and achievements of these projects. Compare the projects’ impacts with the expected impact statements for each of the relevant topics.
Impact-SC5: Bridging Land, Food, Energy and Water for Increased Resource Sufficiency Workshop Topic An interactive workshop comparing the approaches of SC2 and SC5 and their impacts on future Research & Development strategies and EU policy goals. In this context, we will discuss how stronger interlinkages between programmes could help to increase efficiency, reduce redundancies and build synergies in research and its applications while also improving governance across sectors. Time and date Webinar date Tuesday 23 March 2021 Time: 10-12 CET Place This is a virtual event. You will receive a link to connect to the online event after registration. Agenda Welcome and introduction IMPACT SC5 Coordinator (Naiara Uribe, Tecnalia, IMPACT-SC5 Coordinator) Keynotes: Impact Pathways approach: the water portfolio (Janne Lehenkari, VTT) Synergies between SC2 and SC5 impacts – Initial findings (Mona Arnold, VTT) Panel discussion and audience Q&A Panagiotis Balabanis, Head of Sector Water, EC DG Research and Innovation Floor Brouwer, SIM4Nexus project coordinator, University of Wageningen Antonia Lorenzo (BIOAZUL), Water Europe (Leader of the WG on Water and Agrifood) Jaana Lehtimäki (Academy of Finland) NCP for both SC2 and SC5 Casper Zulim de Swarte (Schuttelaar & Partners), Senior Advisor Food Transition Moderator: Linda van Duivenbode, JIIP Registration Registration is no longer possible. Who should attend? Anyone involved in measuring the impact of EU Research and Innovation projects Horizon 2020 consortia representatives Horizon Europe consortia representatives R&I Policy makers
Three categories or dimensions of impact Based on the review of the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 projects, we have developed a set of indicators that as much as possible follows the rules of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable and Attributable, Relevant and Timely) and PATHS (Proximity, Attribution, Traceability, Holism, Stability). The objective is to assess performance and effectiveness over the short to longer term, and the indicators therefore address all analysis concepts from the intervention logic. In line with the intervention logic, the indicators have been built in three dimensions: Scientific Impact Societal and Environmental Impact Economic Impact A quick history of the development of indicators The analysis of the different sources shows an evolution in the development of indicators, from looking at inputs (budget, number of participants, etc.) and immediate outputs (reports and publications) to the relationship between inputs, outputs, outcomes (or results) and impacts and from single indicators to impact pathways. The resulting set of indicators is a ‘fusion’ between those used in FP7 and Horizon 2020 and those proposed for Horizon Europe, taking into consideration also the analysis and proposals set forth in the Expert report ‘Monitoring the Impact of EU Framework Programmes’. Even though tracking of impacts on these three dimensions (scientific, societal, economic) is in its early stages, the results of IMPACT-SC5 will help validate the approach and deliver data to evaluate Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 (SC5) as well as support the evolution to Horizon Europe, which will incorporate the impact pathways methodology in a structured way. Time and Reach The indicators show that two aspects are important to assess the programme’s performance: Time: What happens during and directly following the action and the uptake over a longer period of time? Audience reach: Also measured as the sphere of influence. Who is affected during and directly following the action and over a longer period of time? Ideally there is a ripple effect of diffusion, reaching more people who are becoming more pervasive to the point where a transition has taken place. Scientific Impact When looking at the impact pathways of research and innovation projects it is obvious to first look at the impact on the science itself first. Our study identifies five key subjects of evaluating the scientific impact of H2020 SC5 projects. For each of these five evaluation subjects we defined short-term impact pathways (outputs), medium-term impact pathways (outcomes) and long-term impact pathways (impacts). You can see the full list of impact pathways on science in this document here. Societal and Environmental Impact The second subject of evaluation of Horizon 2020 SC5 projects is the impact on society and the environment. Here we identify two subjects of evaluation: You can see the full list of impact pathways on society in this document here. Economic Impact Thirdly there is the impact on the economy. Here we identify three subjects of evaluation: Please find the full list of impact pathways on the economy in this document here.
Impact of Horizon 2020 SC5 Projects The Impact-SC5 project aims to identify and analyse the impact of Horizon 2020 Societal Challenge 5 projects on science, society, the environment and the economy, to understand why certain impacts have or have not been achieved. Measuring the impact of projects is more important in Horizon 2020 than it was in its predecessors. Horizon 2020 has new performance indicators to measure the impact of the funded actions. However, these indicators are not considered sufficient to fully capture the outcomes and impacts of projects. Reasons for this are for example that the time between the funding of activities and achieving impact can be several years and the difficulty of attributing impact to a single funding source. It is often difficult to attribute outcomes to funding sources, as most research teams receive funding from multiple and different sources. It is therefore critical to develop the right indicators and ensure the quality and quantity of underlying data is done such that the impact of a project can be measured and attributed to its investments. IMPACT-SC5 can be considered a test case and pilot project for monitoring and evaluation of projects that have now finished and have reported their results. This evaluation, using a new and extended set of indicators will be input for the next EU Research and Innovation investment programme, Horizon Europe. This new programme, running from 2021-2027, introduces the concept of key impact pathways to track progress. Impact Pathways in Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe These pathways are included in the Horizon Europe implementation strategy as follows: “Starting with the way the work programme is conceived, there will be a clearer specification of the expected impacts. Unlike Horizon 2020, these targeted impacts will be given at the level of a call, or group of topics, while expected outcomes will be set out for each topic . These provisions will guide applicants and experts alike, and will ensure that, from the off, projects are lined up along impact pathways. Importantly, while expected impacts will be precise, topics will be open to a range of different pathways to achieve those impacts. These targeted impacts will further enable to define the expected feedback to policy at call or groups of topics level.” (source) The evolution in impact pathways from Horizon 2020 to Horizon Europe is shown in the figure below. IMPACT-SC5 evaluates the SC5 projects along three impact pathways to assess performance and effectiveness: Scientific impact Societal and environmental impact Economic impact The IMPACT-SC5 project developed a set of indicators to qualify and quantify each of these impact pathways. You can read more about these indicators in subsequent blogposts.
Research and Innovation in Europe According to the website of the European Commission on the topic, Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014 to 2020) – in addition to the private investment that this money will attract. It promises more breakthroughs, discoveries and world-firsts by taking great ideas from the lab to the market. Objectives of Horizon 2020 The objective of Horizon 2020 is simple: it is a means to drive economic growth and create jobs, Horizon 2020 has the political backing of Europe’s leaders and the Members of the European Parliament. They agreed that research is an investment in our future and so put it at the heart of the EU’s blueprint for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and jobs. Additionally, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation will be complemented by further measures to complete and further develop the European Research Area. These measures will aim at breaking down barriers to create a genuine single market for knowledge, research and innovation. In other words: Horizon 2020 will ensure a solid, strong, leading and globally competitive European research and innovation sector. Horizon 2020 Budget The total budget of €80 billion for the period from 2014 to 2020 is spread over several funding lines, of which you can find more information here. Societal Challenges in Horizon 2020 In addition toi above objectives, Horizon 2020 aims at resolving some of the most important challenges facing society. As there are many challenges, these have been divided into societal challenge categories. The EU has identified seven priority challenges where targeted investment in research and innovation can have a real impact benefitting European citizens: Health, demographic change and wellbeing Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy Secure, clean and efficient energy Smart, green and integrated transport Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials Europe in a changing world – inclusive, innovative and reflective societies Secure societies – protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens. Societal Challenge 5 (SC5) As the name of this website suggests, the Impact-SC5 project specifically focuses on Societal Challenge 5: Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials. The era of never-ending cheap resources is coming to an end: access to raw materials and clean water can no longer be taken for granted. Biodiversity and ecosystems are also under pressure. The solution is to invest now in innovation to support a green economy – an economy that is in sync with the natural environment. Dealing with climate change is a cross-cutting priority in Horizon 2020 and accounts for 35 % of the overall budget across the programme. Waste and water are particular priorities. Waste is currently responsible for 2 % of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions, while boosting growth in the water industry by just 1 % could create up to 20 000 new jobs. The total budget available for Societal Challenge 5 is just over €3 billion. RIA and IA projects The Impact-SC5 project looks at two specific types of Horizon 2020 projects, known as RIA and IA projects. Research and innovation actions (RIA) primarily consist of activities aiming to establish new knowledge and/or to explore the feasibility of a new or improved technology, product, process, service or solution. For this purpose they may include basic and applied research, technology development and integration, testing and validation on a small-scale prototype in a laboratory or simulated environment. These projects are typically 100% funded by the EU. Innovation actions (IA) consist of activities directly aiming at producing plans and arrangements or designs for new, altered or improved products, processes or services. For this purpose they may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication. These projects are typically funded at 70% by the EU, unless these are not-for-profit projects, in which case they are 100% funded)